Papers

Normal kinematics of the upper cervical spine during the Flexion-Rotation Test – In vivo measurements using magnetic resonance imaging

(Takasaki et al., 2011)

Aims: The purpose of this study was 1) to examine measurement reliability of segmental upper cervical movements using magnetic resonance imaging and 2) to investigate the content validity of the FRT

Methods: MRI study measurement on 19 healthy women.

Results: FRT is a valid and reliable (substantial reliability) measure of Upper Cervical Spine UCS Rotation (Better if taken 2 times than one). Normal range 45° each side. Positive test if <33°.

Limitations: Small sample, healthy, only women, young 22yo, 141m average height.

In Practice: FRT is a valid and reliable method to measure C1-C2 rotation.

Takasaki, H., Hall, T., Oshiro, S., Kaneko, S., Ikemoto, Y., & Jull, G. (2011). Normal kinematics of the upper cervical spine during the Flexion-Rotation Test – In vivo measurements using magnetic resonance imaging. Manual Therapy, 16(2), 167–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.math.2010.10.002

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